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Poetic Formats in Contemporary Poetry: A How-To Guide: Concrete Poems / Calligrams

Poetic Forms: Concrete Poems/ Calligrams

Poetic Forms: Concrete Poems & Calligrams

Poetic Forms: Concrete Poems/ Calligrams

from The Edinburgh Dictionary of Modernism

In its narrowest definition, concrete poetry is a type of modernist visual poetry which emerged in the early 1950s and flourished on the fringes of AVANT-GARDE practice throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Invented more or less simultaneously by Eugen Gomringer in Switzerland and the Noigandres group in Brazil (whose key members were Haroldo de Campos, brother Augusto de Campos and Decio Pignatari), it is a non-linear form of poetry in which language is designed not only to be read, but to be looked at. Influenced by the typographical EXPERIMENTATION of figures such as e. e. cummings and Stéphane Mallarmé (particularly the latter's ‘Un Coup de dés jamais n'abolira le hasard’, 1897), Guillaume Apollinaire's CALLIGRAMMES, geometrical ABSTRACTION in the visual arts and post-WAR global advertising and visual culture, the early concrete poets devised a visual syntax based primarily on spatial relations between words and letters. Many concrete poems thus have no conventional beginning or endpoint but are perceived, initially at least, as a visual whole. The poem is considered not as utterance, but as object in the world. The introduction of new devices such as coloured inks and folding pages (the latter leading to a form later termed ‘kinetic poetry’) shows how this idea was further developed, while the preference for Futura and other sans-serif typefaces reflects the early practitioners’ preoccupation with formal purity and self-sufficiency.

Rodger, C. (2018). Concrete poetry. In V. Kolocotroni, & O. Taxidou, The Edinburgh Dictionary of Modernism. Edinburg, UK: Edinburgh University Press. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.simmons.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/edinburghnko/concrete_poetry/0?institutionId=5600

from The Edinburgh Dictionary of Modernism

A calligram is a poem that requires to be seen as well as heard, since its meaning and impact are bound up with the visual arrangement of its words in pictures, patterns or other significant shapes on the page. It was Guillaume Apollinaire who coined the term by bringing ‘calligraphy’ and ‘ideogram’ together, and he too who gave it wide currency by calling his 1918 collection of the poems written over the previous four years Calligrammes

Savage, R. (2018). Calligram. In V. Kolocotroni, & O. Taxidou, The Edinburgh Dictionary of Modernism. Edinburg, UK: Edinburgh University Press. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.simmons.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/edinburghnko/calligram/0?institutionId=5600

Calligrammes

Concrete Poetry

Concrete Poems

Concrete Poetry

Calligrams

Guillaume Apollinaire