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Behind Bars: A Guide to Understanding the Prison Industrial Complex: Citations

This guide is intended as an introduction to the terms and concepts associated with the Prison Industrial Complex in America.

A Brief Introduction:


Davis, A. (1998). Masked Racism: Reflections on the Prison Industrial Complex. History is a Weapon. Retrieved from

Oliver, J. [LastWeekTonight]. (2014, July 20). Prison: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) [Video file]. Retrieved from

Peterson, J. B. (2016). Prison Industrial Complex For Beginners. Danbury, CT: For Beginners. Retrieved from

Schlosser, E. (1998). The Prison-Industrial Complex. The Atlantic. Retrieved from

Williams, R. R. [THE WHY]. (2019. January 17). Jailed In America│WHY SLAVERY? (OFFICIAL SHORT FILM 2018) [Video file]. Retrieved from

Privatization of Prisons:


Bainbridge, D. [Origin Of Everything]. (2019, April 23). Why Do We Have Private Prisons? [Video file]. Retrieved from

Conover, A. [truTV]. (2016, November 23). Adam Ruins Everything - The Shocking Way Private Prisons Make Money [Video file]. Retrieved from

Hallett, M. (2006). A Critical Race Perspective: Private Prisons In America. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Retrieved from


Lehrer, B. & Eisen, L. B. (2017) What to Do with Private Prisons. WNYC. Retrieved from

Selman, D. & Leighton, P. (2010). Punishment for Sale: Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from


Mass Incarceration:


Alexander, M. (2012). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York, NY: The New Press. Retrieved from

Cornish, A. & Coates, T. (2015) Ta-Nehisi Coates Outlines Path To Mass Incarceration In 'The Atlantic.’ NPR. Retrieved from

Hinton, E. (2016). From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Retrieved from

Kilgore, J. (2015) Understanding Mass Incarceration: A People's Guide to the Key Civil Rights Struggle of Our Time. New York, NY: The New Press. Retrieved from

Western, B. [The Atlantic]. (2015, October 2). Mass Incarceration, Visualized. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Prison Labor and the 13th Amendment:


Benns, W. (2015). American Slavery, Reinvented. The Atlantic. Retrieved from

Delaney, A. (2018). The ‘Modern Day Slavery’ Of Prison Labor Really Does Have A Link To Slavery. HuffPost. Retrieved from

DuVernay, A. [moviemaniacsDE]. (2016, September 26). 13TH | official trailer (2016) Netflix. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Martin, M. & DuVernay, A. (2016). Documentary '13TH' Argues Mass Incarceration Is An Extension Of Slavery. NPR. Retrieved from

Oliver, J. [LastWeekTonight]. (2019, August 4). Prison Labor: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO). [Video file]. Retrieved from

Further Research:

Davis, A. (2003). Are Prisons Obsolete. New York City, NY: Seven Stories Press.


Stevenson, B. (2015) Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption. New York City, NY: Spiegel & Grau.


(2019) Brennan Center for Justice. Retrieved from


(2019). Critical Resistance. Oxygen Theme. Retrieved from

(2019). The Marshall Project: Nonprofit journalism about criminal justice. Retrieved from


(2019) The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from


(2019) Vera Institute of Justice. Retrieved from